Timeline & Sources

A timeline and other sources will be added to this page during the fall of 2022.



As a public history project and companion to Defending the Arctic Refuge, this website shares source materials related to the book and the broader history of the Arctic Refuge struggle. For the initial launch, the site features a recently-digitized version of the Last Great Wilderness slide show. This show played a crucial role in the Arctic Refuge fight and helped build relationships across the continent—from Indigenous villages north of the Arctic Circle to Capitol Hill and many places in between. The Last Great Wilderness was developed in collaboration with Gwich’in communities and helped turn the Arctic Refuge debate into a transnational struggle for environmental justice.


Check back later this fall to find more materials, including an interactive, detailed timeline of the Arctic Refuge struggle, a collection of primary sources (including images, speeches, and activist materials), and a list of further readings on the topic.

From the Book

“From Last Great Wilderness tour stops to the hard marble hallways of Capitol Hill, Gwich’in voices reframed the narrative of the Arctic Refuge. Their determination to defend their homelands changed the minds of elected officials and deepened grassroots commitment to the cause. In the pivotal year of 1991 and beyond, Gwich’in leadership proved critical to this fight.”

Defending the Arctic Refuge