The history of the Arctic Refuge is complex. This page offers a guide to some of the key themes discussed in Defending the Arctic Refuge. Each section also features links to important sources--videos, images, and texts--that let you explore this history yourself.

Wildlife of the Refuge

Fig_10.02_Two forward facing caribou in thick spruce forest

Suppression of Science

Fig_09.04_Gas flaring off into flames with frozen tundra in foreground

Photographers and Filmmakers

Lenny car cropped

Gwich'in Advocacy

Indigenous woman speaking to group

Grassroots Organizing

Fig_22.01_Sarah James speaking from podium surrounded by Refuge defenders

Policy and Politicians

Boxer--Banerjee polar bear photo